Learn about some of the most common terms used at Peñoles and in the mining and metals industry.

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  • Refining

    Process aimed at removing impurities (purification) from a metal by physical, chemical, or electrical methods (or by a combination of these).

  • Renewable energy

    Energy obtained from sources that are naturally replenished and virtually inexhaustible, but flow-limited by the amount that is available per unit of time.

  • Reserves

    Economically mineable part of resources determined by at least a Preliminary Feasibility Study, which must disclose relevant information on mining, processing, metallurgical, economic and other factors that demonstrate at the time of reporting, that economic extraction may be justified. They are subdivided into probable and proven reserves, according to their confidence level.

  • Resources

    Mineral concentration of intrinsic economic interest that has been partially studied to quantify its metallic content with a limited confidence level, meaning that economic aspects may not have been completely eveluated. They are sub-divided in inferred, indicated and measured resources, according to the confidence level.

  • Skarn deposit

    Deposit formed by the interaction between fluids derived from granites and carbonate rocks.

  • Smelting

    Process in which a metal is transformed from solid to liquid state through the application of high temperatures (fusion), aimed at separating certain elements from other minerals and impurities.

  • Surface mine

    Also called "open pit" mine, that is developed on the surface of the land, by removing (stripping) the upper layers of bedrock in order to reach semi-buried ore deposits. This technique is usually preferred when commercially useful deposits are close to the surface.