Learn about some of the most common terms used at Peñoles and in the mining and metals industry.

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  • Tailings

    Waste materials obtained after separating target minerals from crushed ore during the flotation process, which consist of a mixture of crushed rocks, water and other elements that are stored in specialized deposits (tailings deposits), since they are no longer technically or economically viable to exploit. In some cases, tailings are re-pumped into flotation circuits to recover valuable minerals that may still be present.

  • Tailings dam

    Specialized dam used to store waste (also known as tailings) from mining operations. Dams have a general classification of upstream, based on their construction design.

  • Underground mine

    Mining activities and operations developed underground through the construction and design of tunnels, shafts, adits and chambers, among others. The exploitation of an underground deposit is carried out when its open pit extraction is not possible due to the depth of the mineral bodies.

  • Vertical Integration

    Vertical integration is an operational strategy that allows a company to cover all (or a large part) of the production process, with the goal of transforming primary goods into useful products for final consumers.